Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Burial Rights In India Ellison gracefully weaves together several extended metaphors of invisibility, blindness, and enslavement throughout the novel. His training as a jazz musician surfaces in the intricate, nuanced developments of these metaphors. The rich symbolism of Invisible Man demonstrates Ellison's effort to never allow his reader to decide on one meaning for a particular symbol. Instead, he presents dozens of possible meanings, each one harmonizing with the rest. Multiple layers of meaning arise from almos t every portion of the novel. The careful, attentive reader is rewarded with complex themes that drive the development of the narrative on several levels. The narrative techniques of extended metaphors and symbolism are used to develop the problem of freedom in American society for the black citizen. Ellison resists literalism in his exploration of this problem. He addresses the existential crisis of the victim of both overt and implicit racism. He explores the legacy of slavery in American culture, not as a dead past, but as a living present. His narrative travels from the Southern experience to the Northern experience, from the rural to the urban. Most of all, he tries to represent the diverse elements of American race politics along side the multifaceted contributions of the black experience to American culture. Invisible Man is not a book to be read haphazardly or quickly. Careful, studious reading is necessary in order to understand and appreciate its depth. Religion
Friday, March 6, 2020
the law essays Recently I read an article about the Heavens Gate Cult, and I wondered why on earth would someone get involved in a cult whose purpose seemed so ridiculous. I decided to do some research to find out a little more about cults. I found out that cults are really not all that uncommon, and that almost anyone can fall victim to a cult. Most people do not set out to join a cult. They get involved with a group of interesting people. These groups usually promise to fulfill a persons individual needs or to compensate for societies failures. The leaders of these cults usually promise to have all the answers to whatever problems these people have. These groups become cults when they are seen as misleading, dangerous, or they oppose the basic values of society. Usually people get involved with cults when they are at a vulnerable period in their lives. People who are at a transitional period in their lives, like people who recently lost a job, or someone who just moved to a new area may be at ris k. Another reason why people get involved with these groups could be that they are unsatisfied with their religion, their education, or their social lives. The cult seems to fill the void of whatever is missing in a persons life. People find instant friendships and a plan for every day life. Most people recruited into cults; are recruited by people who they feel they can trust. Family, friends, neighbors, co-workers or teachers do the recruiting. Recruitment often takes place in familiar places like school, home, work, churches, workshops, or as in the case of Heavens Gate over the Internet. People dont feel like they are getting involved in a cult instead they feel like they are joining the crowd. Cult leaders offer simple answers to the complex problems of everyday living. They claim to know a simple path to happiness, and success. People who follow these simple rules and simple lifestyles will be on this path. Cult leaders g...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Raising awareness of Social Studies for Young Learners - Essay Example 332). . Social studies are important for students to cope with the problems encountered as they enter school. They are taught the meaning of diversity in school, which reflects the diverse society from which they come from in terms of ethnicity, religion and social status. They learn to appreciate diversity, which is useful in their day to day interactions outside school. The studies equip students with life skills of avoiding conflicts in the society. Students are taught the importance of rules and regulations and the need to obey them. They are also taught to appreciate the established institutions and how to participate in their activities. For example they are able to understand democratic processes and how they can participate in future through voting (Gross, S. & Wehner, 2092). A classroom comprises students from various backgrounds that reflect the society they come from. Children from different families study together and social studies help them to understand their place in the society. For example some children may come from diverse backgrounds such as rich, poor, white, black families. There might also be differences in terms of political and religious affiliations. The fact that the classroom mirrors the society indicates that children have been exposed to diversity. Social studies ensure that children understand this diversity and the importance of social harmony. Mere contact with diversity without its understanding may not help to avoid conflicts as children develop in to adulthood. For example, it is one thing to know that the society comprises white and black people, yet it is another thing to understand that colour difference does not mean inequality (Gurin et al. 361). Children in the social studies class are taught to accept and appreciate diversity. They are made to understand that every person
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Personal perspective paper - Essay Example Being a female and the first born, I have understood the different responsibilities that life brings with itself. If I am given a chance to study in the business school and do my MBA, I would be better able to understand the world markets as I already have an idea about the mannerisms in which the different markets already exist within and the methodologies they have adopted towards the foreign traders, marketers and the like. The undergraduate degree in management that I have attained is something that I can look up to when I pursue my MBA degree program. This MBA would eventually make me stand in a league of professionals who are on the go and want to achieve more and more out of life. I will get a better paying job and the ease of mind that I have so much wished and yearned for, with the passage of time. All said and done, I wish to see myself getting established in a financial institution and see progress happening for me left, right and center. I want to make money, more and mor e of it, so that I could make my career strong and a better living is bestowed upon me nonetheless. Thus I decided to pursue my MBA because I felt I was lagging behind in life and I needed to do much more than I had already done. I needed to understand myself a whole lot more and for that, I must study further and an MBA is the key to know more about things, more about the world in general. A better and more comforting life is what I dream of, in the long run and for it to happen; it is pertinent to attain the education that I am longing to have. Having said all that and after the details that I have given about myself and my personality, I would request the said authorities to consider me for admission to the business school so that it could polish my personality as well as fulfill my dream to gain more and more about the big world of corporate giants and all that comes along with that. I would be
Monday, January 27, 2020
Methods Used to Evaluate Investment Projects Evaluation of the attractiveness of an investment proposal, using methods such as average rate of return, internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), or payback period. Investment appraisal is an integral part of capital budgeting (see capital budget), and is applicable to areas even where the returns may not be easily quantifiable such as personnel, marketing, and training Average Rate of Return (ARR) Definition: Method of investment appraisal which determines return on investment by totalling the cash flows (over the years for which the money was invested) and dividing that amount by the number of years Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Definition: One of the two discounted cash flow (DCF) techniques (the other is net present value or NPV) used in comparative appraisal of investment proposals where the flow of income varies over time. IRR is the average annual return earned through the life of an investment and is computed in several ways. Depending on the method used, it can either be the effective rate of interest on a deposit or loan, or the discount rate that reduces to zero the net present value of a stream of income inflows and outflows. If the IRR is higher than the desired rate of return on investment, then the project is a desirable one. However, it is a mechanical method (computed usually with a spreadsheet formula) and not a consistent principle. It can give wrong or misleading answers, especially where two mutually-exclusive projects are to be appraised. Also called dollar weighted rate of return Net Present Value (NPV) Definition: NPV is the difference between the present value (PV) of the future cash flows from an investment and the amount of investment. Present value of the expected cash flows is computed by discounting them at the required rate of return (also called minimum rate of return) For example, an investment of $1,000 today at 10 percent will yield $1,100 at the end of the year; therefore, the present value of $1,100 at the desired rate of return (10 percent) is $1,000. The amount of investment ($1,000 in this example) is deducted from this figure to arrive at NPV which here is zero ($1,000-$1,000). A zero NPV means the project repays original investment plus the required rate of return. A positive NPV means a better return, and a negative NPV means a worse return, than the return from zero NPV. It is one of the two discounted cash flow (DCF) techniques (the other is internal rate of return) used in comparative appraisal of investment proposals where the flow of income varies over time Payback Period Definition: Time required to recover an investment or loan. INVESTMENT APPRAISAL One of the key areas of long-term decision-making that firms must tackle is that of investment the need to commit funds by purchasing land, buildings, machinery and so on, in anticipation of being able to earn an income greater than the funds committed. In order to handle these decisions, firms have to make an assessment of the size of the outflows and inflows of funds, the lifespan of the investment, the degree of risk attached and the cost of obtaining funds. The main stages in the capital budgeting cycle can be summarised as follows: Forecasting investment needs. Identifying project(s) to meet needs. Appraising the alternatives. Selecting the best alternatives. Making the expenditure. Monitoring project(s). Looking at investment appraisal involves us in stage 3 and 4 of this cycle. We can classify capital expenditure projects into four broad categories: Maintenance replacing old or obsolete assets for example. Profitability quality, productivity or location improvement for example. Expansion new products, markets and so on. Indirect social and welfare facilities. Even the projects that are unlikely to generate profits should be subjected to investment appraisal. This should help to identify the best way of achieving the projects aims. So investment appraisal may help to find the cheapest way to provide a new staff restaurant, even though such a project may be unlikely to earn profits for the company. Investment appraisal methods: One of the most important steps in the capital budgeting cycle is working out if the benefits of investing large capital sums outweigh the costs of these investments. The range of methods that business organisations use can be categorised one of two ways: traditional methods and discounted cash flow techniques. Traditional methods include the Average Rate of Return (ARR) and the Payback method; discounted cash flow (DCF) methods use Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return techniques. Traditional Methods Payback: This is literally the amount of time required for the cash inflows from a capital investment project to equal the cash outflows. The usual way that firms deal with deciding between two or more competing projects is to accept the project that has the shortest payback period. Payback is often used as an initial screening method. Payback period = Initial payment / Annual cash inflow So, if Ã £4 million is invested with the aim of earning Ã £500 000 per year (net cash earnings), the payback period is calculated thus: P = Ã £4 000 000 / Ã £500 000 = 8 years This all looks fairly easy! But what if the project has more uneven cash inflows? Then we need to work out the payback period on the cumulative cash flow over the duration of the project as a whole. Payback with uneven cash flows: Of course, in the real world, investment projects by business organisations dont yield even cash flows. Have a look at the following projects cash flows (with an initial investment in year 0 of Ã £4 000): The payback period is precisely 5 years. The shorter the payback period, the better the investment, under the payback method. We can appreciate the problems of this method when we consider appraising several projects alongside each other. But, here we must face the real problem posed by payback: the time value of income flows. Put simply, this issue relates to the sacrifice made as a result of having to wait to receive the funds. In economic terms, this is known as the opportunity cost. More on this point follows later. So, because there is a time value constraint here, the payback method can become complicated. In this case, the earlier flow of revenue is a key factor. Also if post-payback revenues occur earlier in the lives of competing projects, that can be a decisive factor. OK, so its clear that the payback method is a bit of a blunt instrument. So why use it? Arguments in favour of payback Firstly, it is popular because of its simplicity. Research over the years has shown that UK firms favour it and perhaps this is understandable given how easy it is to calculate. Secondly, in a business environment of rapid technological change, new plant and machinery may need to be replaced sooner than in the past, so a quick payback on investment is essential. Thirdly, the investment climate in the UK in particular, demands that investors are rewarded with fast returns. Many profitable opportunities for long-term investment are overlooked because they involve a longer wait for revenues to flow. Arguments against payback It lacks objectivity. Who decides the length of optimal payback time? No one does it is decided by pitting one investment opportunity against another. Cash flows are regarded as either pre-payback or post-payback , but the latter tend to be ignored. Payback takes no account of the effect on business profitability. Its sole concern is cash flow. Payback summary It is probably best to regard payback as one of the first methods you use to assess competing projects. It could be used as an initial screening tool, but it is inappropriate as a basis for sophisticated investment decisions. Average Rate of Return: The average rate of return expresses the profits arising from a project as a percentage of the initial capital cost. However the definition of profits and capital cost are different depending on which textbook you use. For instance, the profits may be taken to include depreciation, or they may not. One of the most common approaches is as follows: ARR = (Average annual revenue / Initial capital costs) * 100 Lets use this simple example to illustrate the ARR: A project to replace an item of machinery is being appraised. The machine will cost Ã £240 000 and is expected to generate total revenues of Ã £45 000 over the projects five year life. What is the ARR for this project? ARR = (Ã £45 000 / 5) / 240 000 * 100 = (Ã £9 000) / 240 000 * 100 = 3.75% Advantages of ARR As with the Payback method, the chief advantage with ARR is its simplicity. This makes it relatively easy to understand. There is also a link with some accounting measures that are commonly used. The Average Rate of Return is similar to the Return on Capital Employed in its construction; this may make the ARR easier for business planners to understand. The ARR is expressed in percentage terms and this, again, may make it easier for managers to use. There are several criticisms of ARR which raise questions about its practical application: Arguments against ARR Firstly, the ARR doesnt take account of the project duration or the timing of cash flows over the course of the project. Secondly, the concept of profit can be very subjective, varying with specific accounting practice and the capitalisation of project costs. As a result, the ARR calculation for identical projects would be likely to result in different outcomes from business to business. Thirdly, there is no definitive signal given by the ARR to help managers decide whether or not to invest. This lack of a guide for decision making means that investment decisions remain subjective.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
The Transformation of Pyschology From the 1920s to today, psychology has surely developed. Technological advancements as well as new ideas and ways of thinking about the subject helped to reform what psychology is today. Rather than completely changing, psychology has actually built up more and more through the decades. New branches were added to the field as those who studied it made new breakthroughs. Over the years many scientists and psychologists have contributed to the transformation of psychology. Up until the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s, psychology was defined as the science of mental life.It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until then that the idea of behaviorism became more prominent in psychology. During the time period between the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s and the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, American psychologists led by John Watson redefined the meaning of psychology into a science of mental life and observable behavior. Not only did Watson redefine psychology, he also started the psychological school of behaviorism. It was als o around this time that Watson and his partner Rosalie Rayner conducted their conditioning experiment. The idea of classical conditioning came into play when behaviorism became a major branch of psychology.Between the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1970s, the mental perspective of psychology came back, producing another new branch. This new branch was called cognitive psychology. Cognitive psychology focused mainly on mental processes such as thinking, problem solving, memory, decision making, and language. The term Ã¢â¬Å"cognitive psychologyÃ¢â¬ was first used in 1967 by the American psychologist named Ulric Neisser. To go along with cognitive psychology is the topic of cognitive development. This theory was concerned with the development of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s thought process.Jean Piaget published The Moral Judgment of Children which began his popularity as a theorist in cognitive development. As a reaction to behaviorism and psychoanalysis (a type developed by Freud, before the 1920s) , ano ther new type of psychology called humanism arose. Humanistic psychology stressed the importance of self-actualization and growth, and focused mainly on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s potential. This new view on psychology was created by Abraham Maslow in the 1950s. He published Toward a Psychology of Being, in which he described humanistic psychology as Ã¢â¬Å"the third forceÃ¢â¬ in psychology (behind behavioral and psychoanalysis).After the emergence of these new branches, psychology started to become more technologically advanced. Scientists and psychologists became interested in exploring the brain without removing it from subjects. They started to develop new technology. An example of this was in 1981, when a team developed the PET scan, which enabled doctors to view a computer generated image of the brain and when it is most active during certain mental activities. Today, technology continues to improve, which help psychologists discover more. Through the decades, psychology has undergone so me great changes.As new ideas came into play, new ways of thinking molded and shaped psychology into what it is today. Not only did psychology become a science of behavioral and mental life, but it also gained new branches that go even deeper. Psychology will most likely continue to grow and develop over the years. As technology advances, scientists and psychologists will discover even more and psychology will continue to expand as it did from the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s until now.
Friday, January 10, 2020
The protagonists of Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an Hour,Ã¢â¬ by Kate Chopin and Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for Emily,Ã¢â¬ by William Faulkner long for a freedom withheld by the heavy hand of their surroundings. At the presentation of both these stories, it is easy to see how this could become a classic telling of the Southern condition but the skillful use of foreshadowing and symbolism creates irony in a series of seemingly ordinary events. Both women in these stories were bound by the strict expectations of their society.Louise and Emily not only feel but also live by the demands that society and their families have placed on them. When they finally realize their sovereignty, they attempt to maintain it in the most unconventional manner. In FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for Emily,Ã¢â¬ Emily endures the push and pull of social graces and the strict expectations of a lady well into her life. After her father, and last attachment to pre-war decencies, passes, Emily confines herself to her home. She eventually begins to date a young man, Homer Baron, a day laborer and heavy drinker who is far from the accepted suitor. Emily seems to have achieved her purpose as a true Southern lady when she marries Baron. For reasons unbeknown to her ever-prying town, she then boards up her home and never leaves again. Upon her death the town realizes that Baron died, or rather had been killed, shortly after the wedding while his corpse lay in the marriage bed ever since.This absolute preservation of a thriving time was the only way Emily could maintain freedom in her mind. Emily had become so engrossed in the norms of her culture that her world became too small to live in. Caught in the societal transition of Civil War aftermath) and with the constant vigilance of Emily by the townspeople, we can see there is no option for complete fulfillment in her life. Her choice to live in a Ã¢â¬Å"snapshotÃ¢â¬ of her life becomes the only adequate one. Like Emily, the protagonist in Ã¢â¬Å"The Sto ry of an Hour,Ã¢â¬ Louise, feels inhibited in her life.When Louise Mallard is told of her husband's death, she rejoices seeing the possibility for a new course in life, free from the obligation of marriage. In the early moments of her new venture, it is discovered her husband is in fact alive. She was imprisoned in her husband's life, free in his death, and then entombed by the realization of the misinformation. Brently Mallard's death symbolizes the end of obligatory formalities on Louise; the loss of her new found freedom stops her heart from beating.It is clear that the expectation of Louise is so overwhelming that her body literally cannot sustain its pressure any longer. In the beginning of the story the reader is warned of LouiseÃ¢â¬â¢s heart troubles, it is then discovered this Ã¢â¬Å"troubleÃ¢â¬ may have manifested because of her conformation to social practices. This story initially leads the reader to a presumption of a typical reaction by a genteel Southern woman, but with the admission into the true thoughts of Louise, the reader may see what is customary is not always what is natural.The characters of Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ personify women who have been lost in a world cultured by society, inhibited by its demands and mistaken by its perceptions. These stories force a more critical reading of what could be seen as Ã¢â¬Å"typicalÃ¢â¬ behavior. The controversies of the Southern tradition are personified in both characters, representing larger ideas that would perpetuate the downfall of a culture. As these stories employ foreshadowing as a literary tactic, the stories themselves aim to suggest an unfavorable end if reconsideration is not given to the status quo.